**Functional Foods: An Introduction**
Functional foods, unlike superfoods, have been extensively researched and are supported by scientific evidence. These foods contain bioactive substances that provide unique health benefits to the body. Bioactive substances can either be naturally occurring or added during food processing. In recent years, the concept of functional foods and bioactive components has gained attention due to their potential to act as a medicine-like substance.
**The History and Importance of Functional Foods**
In the early 1900s to the 1970s, nutrition research primarily focused on identifying and addressing vitamin deficiencies. This led to the fortification of processed foods to combat nutrient deficiency diseases. However, this approach resulted in an excessive focus on specific nutrients, contributing to weight gain and associated health issues. In the 1980s, the U.S. government published dietary guidelines to reduce fat intake and replace it with starchy foods, resulting in increased obesity and diabetes rates. To combat these health issues, Japan introduced the concept of functional foods in the 1980s.
**Japan’s Focus on Functional Foods**
Japan became the first country to embrace the concept of functional foods by introducing “Food for Specialized Health Uses.” Over 1,000 foods and beverages in Japan have been approved as functional foods, promoting various health benefits. For instance, bioactive prebiotic dietary fibers are used to improve digestion, and apple polyphenols are known to support heart health. Japan’s focus on functional foods has yielded positive results, with significant improvements in overall health and well-being.
**Bioactive Components in Apples**
Apples are considered functional foods due to their high content of bioactive components. Pectin, a fiber found mainly in the apple’s pulp, aids in reducing the absorption of sugar and fat in the body. This, in turn, helps reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease. Apple peels are also rich in fiber, acting as a natural laxative. Additionally, apples contain polyphenols, such as anthocyanins and phloridzin, that play significant roles in promoting health and reducing chronic diseases. Diets rich in anthocyanins have shown positive effects on heart health, while phloridzin helps regulate blood glucose levels.
**Do Apples Really Keep the Doctor Away?**
Although apples have been associated with health benefits, research on their direct impact on overall health is inconclusive. One study analyzed data from over 8,000 adults and found that those who ate one apple daily used slightly fewer prescription medications. However, the number of doctor’s visits remained similar between apple eaters and non-apple eaters. Other studies suggest that consuming two or three apples a day may improve heart health, aid in weight loss, and regulate blood glucose levels. While apples alone may not drastically reduce the need for prescriptions or doctor visits, they can be a step towards a healthier diet rich in fiber and whole foods.
**Incorporating Apples into Your Diet**
Apples are a convenient and cost-effective option for incorporating functional foods into your daily routine. They require no cooking or refrigeration for at least a week, making them a convenient choice for on-the-go snacking. With a plethora of varieties available, you can choose your favorite type to enjoy the health benefits associated with apples. As the adage goes, an apple a day may not keep the doctor away, but it can certainly contribute to a balanced and nutritious diet.
Functional foods, such as apples, offer unique health benefits due to their bioactive components. While the direct impact of apples on overall health may not be yet fully understood, research suggests that incorporating apples into a balanced diet can contribute to improved heart health, regulated blood glucose levels, and potentially aid in weight loss. So, next time you go to the grocery store, consider adding apples to your shopping cart and enjoy the numerous health benefits they provide.